Since 1989, Dr. Murphy has been the P.I. of the San Francisco site of the multi-center NHLBI Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Surveillance (REDS) study, whose purpose is to perform epidemiological studies to monitor and reduce infectious and non-infectious risks in blood donors and transfused patients. A 10-year NHLBI Mid-Career Investigator Award (K24) and the NHLBI REDS International Program have funded an international research and training program for 250 junior scientists from Latin America, South Africa and francophone Africa. Finally, Dr. Murphy established a multicenter (five U.S. cities) cohort study of almost 550 HTLV-1 and -2 infected blood donors and 800 age-, sex- and race-matched controls. The cohort, with almost 20 years of biennial follow-up, is recognized for major findings in the epidemiology, virology and pathophysiology of HTLV-1 and -2 infection.